Microbiology and basic immunology (GBB 3010) - VDU Biochemijos ir biotechnologijų katedra
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Microbiology and basic immunology (GBB 3010)

Course code

Course group

Volume in ECTS credits

Course hours





Course type (compulsory or optional)


Course level (study cycle)


Semester the course is delivered


Study form (face-to-face or distant)


Course title in Lithuanian

Mikrobiologija ir imunologijos pagrindai

Course title in English


Short course annotation in Lithuanian

Mikrobiologijos tyrimo objektas. Mikroorganizmų tyrimų istorijos apžvalga, tyrimo metodai, klasifikavimo principai. Filogenetiniai ryšiai tarp mikroorganizmų grupių. Mikroorganizmų morfologija, augimas ir reprodukcija. Mikroorganizmų genetika. Mikroorganizmų augimo kontrolė, mikroorganizmų panaudojimas biotechnologijoje. Bakterijų, archėjų ir eukariotinių mikroorganizmų įvairovė. Pagrindinės bakterijų grupės. Virusai ir plazmidės. Mikroorganizmų metabolizmo įvairovė. Bakterijų vykdoma fotosintezė, chemolitotrofija, anaerobinis kvėpavimas, azoto fiksacija, rauginimas. Mikroorganizmų vaidmuo aplinkoje. Mikroorganizmų ir šeimininko ryšiai. Parazitiniai mikroorganizmai, bakterijų toksinai. Simbiontiniai mikroorganizmai. Imunologijos pagrindai. Imuninės sistemos funkcinė organizacija. Imuninės sistemos molekulės. Imuninis atsakas. Imunologiniai metodai.

Short course annotation in English

Students will acquire basic theoretical and practical knowledge in microbiology. They will be able to handle microbiological cultures. The course content: The object of microbiology. History of microbiology. Microbiological methods. Morphology of microorganisms. Growth of microbial cultures. Reproduction of microorganisms. Microorganisms in biotechnology. Microbial evolution and phylogenetic relationships. Diversity of bacteria, archaea and eukaryotic microorganisms. Viruses and plasmids. Microorganisms and environment. Overview of microbial metabolism. Anaerobic respiration, microbial photosynthesis, phototrophic bacteria, fixation of nitrogen, fermentation. Pathogenic microorganisms, host-pathogen relationships. Symbiotic microorganisms. Basic immunology. Functional organization of the immune system. Molecules of the immune system. The immune response. Immunological methods.

Prerequisites for entering the course

Basic Biology, General Chemistry, Biochemistry

Course aim

The aim of this course is to cover fundamenal aspects of biology of microorganisms, basic virology and immunology. During the course emphasis  is made on modern methods of investigation.

Content (topics)

 1. Overview of the history of microbiological research. Principles of classification in microbiology. The main bacterial groups
 2. Diversity of bacteria, archaea and eukaryotic microorganisms. Phylogenetic relationships among the groups of microorganisms
 3. Morphology of microorganisms
 4. Genetics of microorganisms. Plasmids
 5. Microbial growth and reproduction. Growth control
 6. Microbial examination techniques, The use of microorganisms in biotechnology
 7. Metabolism of various microorganisms. Bacterial photosynthesis, chemolitotrophy, anaerobic respiration, nitrogen fixation, fermentation
 8. The role of microorganisms in the environment
 9. Viruses. Reproduction of virus particles. One-step infection cycle
 10. Features of viruses, infecting bacteria, animals, plants
 11. Microorganism and host relationships. Parasitic microorganisms, bacterial toxins. Symbiotic microorganisms
 12. Functional organization of immune system
 13. Molecules of immune system
 14. Immune response
 15. Immunological methods

Practical work (contents):

  1. Isolation of pure microbial culture. Inoculation methods.
  2. Counting of bacteria by serial dilution method.
  3. Microbial enzymes. Detection of amylase, DNAse, protease, catalase and oxidase activity.
  4. Microbial metabolism. Differential and selective media.
  5. Staining of bacteria. Gram stain. Endospore staining.
  6. Control of bacterial growth. Effects of UV radiation and antibiotics.
  7. Estimation of bacteriophage titer
  8. Immunology laboratory .Immune system.
  9. Agglutination reactions.
  10. Two- directional radial immunodiffusion.

Distribution of workload for students (contact and independent work hours)

Lectures – 45 h, practical work (laboratory practice) – 30 h, individual work – 78 h, assessment of knowledge (control work, mid-term examination, final examination) – 7 h

Structure of cumulative score and value of its constituent parts

Final assessment sums the assessments of written final examination (50%), written mid-term examination (20%), assessment of laboratory works (30%).

Recommended reference materials



Publication year

Authors of publication and title

Publishing house

Number of copies in

University library

Self-study rooms

Other libraries

Basic materials



Lasinskaitė – Čerkašina A., Pavilonis A., Vaičiuvėnas V. Medicinos mikrobiologija ir virusologijos pagrindai.

Kaunas: Technologija







Madigan M.T., Martinko J.M., Parker J., Dunlap P.V., Clark D. P. Brock’s Biology of Microorganisms.

San Fransisco




Supplementary materials



Masteikienė R. (2002). Maisto produktų mikrobiologija. Kaunas.





Johnson T. R., Case C.L. (2000). Laboratory Experiments in Microbiology. San Fransisco





Frank, Steven A. (2002). Immunology and Evolution of Infectious Disease.





Buzaitė O. (2006). Mikrobiologijos praktikos darbai. http://gamta.vdu.lt/bakalaurai/bakalaurai.html



Course programme designed by

Prof. dr.Rimantas Daugelavičius and dr. Odeta Buzaitė, Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnologies, Faculty of Natural Sciences

Additional information